Vitamins deficiency, dependency and toxicity

Vitamins deficiency, dependency and toxicity for fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E, and K) or water-soluble (B vitamins and vitamin C). The water-soluble B vitamins include biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin (B2), thiamin (B1), B6 (pyridoxine) and B12 (cobalamins).

Vitamins deficiency, dependency and toxicity of Fat-soluble Vitamins( A, D, E, and K)

Vitamin A (retinol):

Sources Of Vitamin A DV- 5000 IU

Sweet Potato-1921,Carrots-17033, Green Leafy Vegetables-1362, Apricot-12669,Melon- 3382, Fish-2520, / 100 gm.Red Bell pepper (1 no)- 5131, Mango (1 no) -3636 IU

As provitamin carotenoids: 

The dark green and yellow vegetables, carrots, yellow and orange fruits must are the excellent source 

Functions:

  • Formation of rhodopsin (a photoreceptor pigment in the retina)
  • Integrity of epithelia
  • Lysosome stability
  • Glycoprotein synthesis.

Deficiency:

The deficiency can cause – Night blindness, perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, increased morbidity and mortality in young children

Toxicity:

Headache, peeling of the skin, hepatosplenomegaly, bone thickening, intracranial hypertension, papilledema.

 

Vitamin D (cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol)

Foods that provide vitamin D include:

Sunlight is Mushroom 446 IU, Tofu- 157 IU, Soy Yoghurt 53 IU, Whole Milk 671 IU/ 100 gm. Boiled egg 1- 441 IU

Function– Calcium and phosphate absorption. Mineralization and repair of bone.

Tubular reabsorption of Calcium, Insulin and thyroid function, improvement of immune function, reduction of autoimmune disease

Deficiency:

Rickets (sometimes with tetany), osteomalacia

Toxicity:

Hypercalcemia, anorexia, renal failure, metastatic calcifications.

 

Vitamin E group (α-tocopherol, other tocopherols)

Vitamin E Rich food Dv 20 mg -Almonds -7.3 mg,,Sunflower Seeds.10.2 mg / 28gm, Spinach,3.7 mg , Broccoli-1.5 mg /.Avocado,-2.1 mg , Tofu 5 mg /100 gm .

Turnip Greens, Kale, Plant Oils, Hazelnuts. Pine nuts, Broccoli, Olives, Papaya, Parsley, are also rich in Vitamin E

Scavenger of free radicals in biologic membranes

Deficiency:

RBC hemolysis, neurologic deficits

Toxicity:

A tendency to bleed.

 

Vitamin K group (phylloquinone, menaquinones)

Source of Vitamin K- (DV- 80 mcg)

Green leafy vegetables (especially collards, spinach, and salad greens) 900 mcg, soybeans-70.6 mcg , Prunes- 59.5 mcg, Hoot species (chilly Powder) -3.2 mcg, vegetable oils

Functions -Bacteria in the GI tract after the neonatal period.

Formation of prothrombin, other coagulation factors, and bone proteins.

Deficiency:

Bleeding due to deficiency of prothrombin and other factors, osteopenia.

Dietary requirements for vitamins (and other nutrients) are expressed as daily recommended intake (DRI).

There are three types of DRI:

  • Recommended daily allowance (RDA): RDAs are set to meet the needs of 97 to 98% of healthy people.
  • Adequate intake (AI): When data to calculate an RDA is insufficient, AIs are based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by healthy people.
  • Tolerable upper intake level (UL): ULs are the most significant amount of a nutrient that most adults can ingest daily without risk of adverse health effects.

Vitamins deficiency, dependency and toxicity of Water-soluble vitamins ( B and C)

B Vitamins

B1(Thiamine ) Rich foods Dv 1.4 mg

Fish 0.25, Green Peas – 0.28, Squash-0.17 , Asparagus-0.16, Navy bean-0.29, Soybean-0.43mg / 100 gm. Pista (28gm) -0.2mg , Whitebread (1 slice)- 0.14 mg

Functions:

  • Carbohydrate, fat, amino acid, glucose, and alcohol metabolism
  • Central and peripheral nerve cell function
  • Myocardial function

Deficiency:

Beriberi (peripheral neuropathy, heart failure), Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Sources:

Milk, cheese, liver, meat, eggs, enriched cereal products

Functions:

  • Many aspects of carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • The integrity of mucous membranes

Deficiency:

Cheilosis, angular stomatitis, corneal vascularization.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)- Dv -20 mg

Non-vegetarian sources are – fish (22.1mg), chicken breast (14.8 mg) per 100 gm Vegetarian sources are – Peanuts (13.8), Green Peas (2.1), avocado ( 1.7mg) per 100 gm

Sunflower seeds 28 g – (2.3mg)

Functions:

  • Oxidation-reduction reactions
  • Carbohydrate and cell metabolism

Deficiency:

Pellagra (dermatitis, glossitis, GI and CNS dysfunction)

Toxicity:

Flushing.

Vitamin B6 group (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) Dv- 2mg

Non-vegetarian sources are – Fish (1.04) Chicken, (0.81) per 100 gm

Vegetarian sources are -Spinach (0.24mg),per 100 gm

Other sources are– Pistachios 28 gm (0.31mg) Banana 1 med (0.43 mg) Prunes- 100 gm (0.7 mg)

Functions:

  • Many aspects of nitrogen metabolism (e.g., transaminations, porphyrin and heme synthesis, tryptophan conversion to niacin
  • Nucleic acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid, lipid, and amino acid metabolism

Deficiency:

Seizures, anaemia, neuropathies, seborrheic dermatitis

Toxicity:

Peripheral neuropathy

B 9 Folate (folic acid)

Anxiety and mood swings associated with PMS.

Vitamin B9 (Folate)- Dv-400 Mcg Sources are

Beans- 235 mcg Lentils- 181 mcg, Spinach & Other green Leafy vegetables -200 mcg . / 100 gm cooked. Asparagus -149 , Lettuce- 131,Avocado- 81 mcg, Broccoli – 108 mcg. Mango – 43 mcg, per 100 gm. white bread- 25 mcg / slice

Functions:

  • Maturation of RBCs
  • Synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and methionine
  • Development of the fetal nervous system

Deficiency:

Megaloblastic anaemia, neural tube congenital disabilities, mental confusion.

Vitamin B12(cobalamins)

Animal foods are the only natural source of vitamin B12. It is found naturally in fish, red meat, poultry, milk, milk products, cheese, and eggs. But, many products, including soy products and cereals, are fortified with B12 Other good natural sources include shellfish, such as clams, mussels and crab, finfish and beef.

Maturation of RBCs, neural function, DNA synthesis, myelin synthesis and repair

Deficiency:

Megaloblastic anaemia, neurologic deficits (confusion, paresthesias, ataxia)

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Highest Sources Of Vitamin C Dv-(60 mg)

Fruits Like Berries (Blue & BlackBerry) 38.8, Guava- 228, Orange- 69.7, Papaya- 60.9, Kiwi- 64, Vegetables like Bell peppers 183.5, Green Peas-60 Spinach- 80.4. Broccoli-81.2,Tomatoes-56.1

Another source is –

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, strawberries, sweet peppers

Functions:

  • Collagen formation
  • Bone and blood vessel health
  • Carnitine, hormone, and amino acid formation
  • Wound healing

Deficiency:

Scurvy (haemorrhages, loose teeth, gingivitis, bone defects)

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