Vitamins deficiency, dependency and toxicity
Vitamins deficiency, dependency and toxicity for fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E, and K) or water-soluble (B vitamins and vitamin C). The water-soluble B vitamins include biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin (B2), thiamin (B1), B6 (pyridoxine) and B12 (cobalamins).
Vitamin A (retinol):
Sources Of Vitamin A DV- 5000 IU
Sweet Potato-1921,Carrots-17033, Green Leafy Vegetables-1362, Apricot-12669,Melon- 3382, Fish-2520, / 100 gm.Red Bell pepper (1 no)- 5131, Mango (1 no) -3636 IU
As provitamin carotenoids:
The dark green and yellow vegetables, carrots, yellow and orange fruits must are the excellent source
- Formation of rhodopsin (a photoreceptor pigment in the retina)
- Integrity of epithelia
- Lysosome stability
- Glycoprotein synthesis.
The deficiency can cause – Night blindness, perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, increased morbidity and mortality in young children
Headache, peeling of the skin, hepatosplenomegaly, bone thickening, intracranial hypertension, papilledema.
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol)
Foods that provide vitamin D include:
Sunlight is Mushroom 446 IU, Tofu- 157 IU, Soy Yoghurt 53 IU, Whole Milk 671 IU/ 100 gm. Boiled egg 1- 441 IU
Function– Calcium and phosphate absorption. Mineralization and repair of bone.
Tubular reabsorption of Calcium, Insulin and thyroid function, improvement of immune function, reduction of autoimmune disease
Rickets (sometimes with tetany), osteomalacia
Hypercalcemia, anorexia, renal failure, metastatic calcifications.
Vitamin E group (α-tocopherol, other tocopherols)
Vitamin E Rich food Dv 20 mg -Almonds -7.3 mg,,Sunflower Seeds.10.2 mg / 28gm, Spinach,3.7 mg , Broccoli-1.5 mg /.Avocado,-2.1 mg , Tofu 5 mg /100 gm .
Turnip Greens, Kale, Plant Oils, Hazelnuts. Pine nuts, Broccoli, Olives, Papaya, Parsley, are also rich in Vitamin E
Scavenger of free radicals in biologic membranes
RBC hemolysis, neurologic deficits
A tendency to bleed.
Vitamin K group (phylloquinone, menaquinones)
Source of Vitamin K- (DV- 80 mcg)
Green leafy vegetables (especially collards, spinach, and salad greens) 900 mcg, soybeans-70.6 mcg , Prunes- 59.5 mcg, Hoot species (chilly Powder) -3.2 mcg, vegetable oils
Functions -Bacteria in the GI tract after the neonatal period.
Formation of prothrombin, other coagulation factors, and bone proteins.
Bleeding due to deficiency of prothrombin and other factors, osteopenia.
Dietary requirements for vitamins (and other nutrients) are expressed as daily recommended intake (DRI).
There are three types of DRI:
- Recommended daily allowance (RDA): RDAs are set to meet the needs of 97 to 98% of healthy people.
- Adequate intake (AI): When data to calculate an RDA is insufficient, AIs are based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by healthy people.
- Tolerable upper intake level (UL): ULs are the most significant amount of a nutrient that most adults can ingest daily without risk of adverse health effects.
B1(Thiamine ) Rich foods Dv 1.4 mg
Fish 0.25, Green Peas – 0.28, Squash-0.17 , Asparagus-0.16, Navy bean-0.29, Soybean-0.43mg / 100 gm. Pista (28gm) -0.2mg , Whitebread (1 slice)- 0.14 mg
- Carbohydrate, fat, amino acid, glucose, and alcohol metabolism
- Central and peripheral nerve cell function
- Myocardial function
Beriberi (peripheral neuropathy, heart failure), Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
Milk, cheese, liver, meat, eggs, enriched cereal products
- Many aspects of carbohydrate and protein metabolism
- The integrity of mucous membranes
Cheilosis, angular stomatitis, corneal vascularization.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)- Dv -20 mg
Non-vegetarian sources are – fish (22.1mg), chicken breast (14.8 mg) per 100 gm Vegetarian sources are – Peanuts (13.8), Green Peas (2.1), avocado ( 1.7mg) per 100 gm
Sunflower seeds 28 g – (2.3mg)
- Oxidation-reduction reactions
- Carbohydrate and cell metabolism
Pellagra (dermatitis, glossitis, GI and CNS dysfunction)
Vitamin B6 group (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) Dv- 2mg
Non-vegetarian sources are – Fish (1.04) Chicken, (0.81) per 100 gm
Vegetarian sources are -Spinach (0.24mg),per 100 gm
Other sources are– Pistachios 28 gm (0.31mg) Banana 1 med (0.43 mg) Prunes- 100 gm (0.7 mg)
- Many aspects of nitrogen metabolism (e.g., transaminations, porphyrin and heme synthesis, tryptophan conversion to niacin
- Nucleic acid biosynthesis
- Fatty acid, lipid, and amino acid metabolism
Seizures, anaemia, neuropathies, seborrheic dermatitis
B 9 Folate (folic acid)
Anxiety and mood swings associated with PMS.
Vitamin B9 (Folate)- Dv-400 Mcg Sources are
Beans- 235 mcg Lentils- 181 mcg, Spinach & Other green Leafy vegetables -200 mcg . / 100 gm cooked. Asparagus -149 , Lettuce- 131,Avocado- 81 mcg, Broccoli – 108 mcg. Mango – 43 mcg, per 100 gm. white bread- 25 mcg / slice
- Maturation of RBCs
- Synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and methionine
- Development of the fetal nervous system
Megaloblastic anaemia, neural tube congenital disabilities, mental confusion.
Animal foods are the only natural source of vitamin B12. It is found naturally in fish, red meat, poultry, milk, milk products, cheese, and eggs. But, many products, including soy products and cereals, are fortified with B12 Other good natural sources include shellfish, such as clams, mussels and crab, finfish and beef.
Maturation of RBCs, neural function, DNA synthesis, myelin synthesis and repair
Megaloblastic anaemia, neurologic deficits (confusion, paresthesias, ataxia)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Highest Sources Of Vitamin C Dv-(60 mg)
Fruits Like Berries (Blue & BlackBerry) 38.8, Guava- 228, Orange- 69.7, Papaya- 60.9, Kiwi- 64, Vegetables like Bell peppers 183.5, Green Peas-60 Spinach- 80.4. Broccoli-81.2,Tomatoes-56.1
Another source is –
Citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, strawberries, sweet peppers
- Collagen formation
- Bone and blood vessel health
- Carnitine, hormone, and amino acid formation
- Wound healing
Scurvy (haemorrhages, loose teeth, gingivitis, bone defects)
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