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Protein Calorie Malnutrition
Deficiency, Nutrition

Protein Calorie Malnutrition 

Protein Calorie Malnutrition:

Protein Calorie Malnutrition – WHO defines Malnutrition as a cellular imbalance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body demands for them to ensure growth. Protein calorie malnutrition is the condition of inadequate consumption of proteins and energy as a result of primary dietary deficiency or conditioned deficiency cause loss of body mass and adipose tissue resulting in protein calorie malnutrition or protein-energy malnutrition.

What is Malnutrition?

Malnutrition is the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of vitamins minerals carbohydrates proteins fats it need to maintain the healthy tissue and organ functions protein-calorie malfunction malnutrition it is a group of body depletion disorder which include marasmus and cover soccer protein energy malnutrition is also referred as protein calorie malnutrition it is considered as primary nutritional programme in India also first national nutritional disorder the term protein protein calorie malnutrition applied to a group of related disorders that include marasmus and kwashiorkor are both cover soccer Joker etiology different combination of mini ethological factors can lead the protein calorie malnutrition in children there are social and economical factors biological factors environmental factors role of free radicals and asala toxins age of host among social economical biological and environmental factors common are lack of breastfeeding and given giving diluted formula improper complementary feed overcrowding in family ignorance illiteracy lack of health education poverty infection familiar disharmony.v

New theories have been postulated recently to explain the pathogenesis of orca was Yorker this includes free radical damage and aflatoxin poisoning this may damage liver cells give rise to Tu Joker age of most frequently in infants and young children so rapidly grow increase nutritional requirement 14 calorie malfunctioning malnutrition in pregnant and lactating women can affect the growth nutritional status and survival rate of foetus newborn and Infant etiology of protein calorie malnutrition proteins and energy intake below requirement of normal level which give rise to secondary protein-calorie malfunction the need of growth is greater than supply decrease in nutrition absorption increase in nutrient loss which Seasons linear growth weight loss wasting of muscle malnutrition and its science will appear.

Causes for Protein Calorie Malnutrition:

The worm infestation the worm compete with child for nutrition in food that consumes consumed resulting in inadequate nutrition available for the body is metabolic process in infant second infection when a child has infection their body needs to burn up extra Calories and lot of proteins are used to fight off infection so nutritional requirement increases failure to increase the amount of food intake as child growth correspond with the increase in demand for should be increased example child after 6 months need extra food in addition to breast milk IV reason lack of knowledge on proper preparation of food this may lead to over cooking of overfitting and subsequent loss of nutrients.

Types of Malnutrition:

There are 1)Marasmus 2)Kwashiorkor 3)Marasmic kwashiorkor (present with a combination of above 2)

Marasmus it is a CBR form of protein calorie malnutrition which occur in children due to inadequate intake of primary carbohydrates however they may also be adequate proteins are fat intake and characterized by severe weight loss and stunt growth marasmus usually develops between 6 months to 1 year in children who have weaned from breast milk or who suffered from V conditions like chronic HIV are its.


The inadequate intake of carbohydrate lead to reduce the available nutrition to the body tissues this state of deficiency make the body to adjust the circumstances in terms of hormone secretion reductive adaptation by doing so it makes most efficient use of available resources in their reach please ensure your a survival Ahmed adequate intake adjustment are as follows production of thyroxine in in less quantity to reduce the metabolic rate so that less energy is required the production of insulin reduce to try to maintain blood sugar levels as a result growth is suspended retardation is shown in children due to malnutrition to meet the body demands what is start utilising fat and muscle tissues to generate energy so that energy demand should be fulfilled this accounts for severe tissue wasting seen in marasmic child result of loss of fat and muscle tissues as well as depletion the child appear week and theme.

Signs and Symptoms of Marasmus:

It is due to severe tissue wasting and body parts decomposition child look very thin old man skinny flaccid dry and Twinkle wrinkled and seem to be big for the body child has good appetite the child look alert and may cry at the sight of food child may also have diarrhoea due to infection and impaired absorption diagnosis clinical peripheral edema can be observed serum proteins will be normal blood for urea and electrolyte will show in balance blood glucose must be done through love the hypoglycemia blood and hemoglobin test should be done without any Mia blood culture should be done to rule out bacterial infection x-ray must be done to rule out pneumonia by doing all this things and by observing the symptoms disease can be confirmed.


It is a type of protein calorie malnutrition which usually occur after 12 months may be due to inadequate or low protein in the diet and it is characterized by edema Apache and moon shaped face the condition usually appears at the age of 12 months when the best feeding is discontinued but It can develop at any time during the child’s formative years pathophysiology of kwashiorkor insufficient intake of protein will lead to the poor tissue replacement and development there will be also reduced synthesis of Plasma proteins and digestive enzymes due to the low production of digestive enzymes GIT upset will be there atrophy of mucosal lining and intestinal villai will be there where absorption takes place this lead to Mile absorption and diarrhoea this will human ate in malabsorption leading the area diarrhoea will intern lead loss of electrolyte such as potassium calcium and other in liver protein content is reduced while fat is increased there for the size of a liver will increase leading hepatomegaly reduction in plasma protein lead to reduce cosmetic pressure in capillaries that promotes the escaping out of fluids into extravascular spaces and intravascular spaces causing edema.

Signs and symptoms of Kwashiorkor:

It can be observed in feet ankle even spreading to the rest of the body due to the inadequate plasma proteins to hold the Fluids in children has a party and anorexia due to inadequate food intake and impaired GIT mucosal function child has a moon shaped face due to edema the hairs are dry thin brownish red easily pulled out due to lack of proteins which are essential for the formation of hairs there will be hyper pigmentation of skin with patches in some case please feeling out of epidermis can be seen temperature baby normal and infections chances will be more due to low immunity and reduced metabolic rate weight loss due to undernourishment stunted growth delay puberty growth retardation can be seen impaired immunity due to lack of proteins can be seen.

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