Pathophysiology of Migraine:

A Migraine is a primary headache disorder.

or

Migraine is an episodic primary headache disorder.symptoms last 4-72 hrs and maybe severe.pain. It is often unilateral, throbbing accompanied by nausea, sensitivity to light, sound, odors.

Cause for Pathophysiology of Migraine:

The exact cause of migraine headaches is not clearly understood. Though experts believe they are due to a combination of the expansion of blood vessels and the release of certain chemicals, which causes inflammation and pain.

The chemicals dopamine and serotonin are among those involved in migraine. These chemicals are found normally in the brain and can cause blood vessels to act abnormally. If they are present in abnormal amounts or if the blood vessels are unusually sensitive to them.

Symptoms in Pathophysiology of Migraine:

Mood changes
Loss of appetite
Nausea or combination of above
Migraine is more than a headache and involves photophobia, sonophobia(sensitive 2 sounds), osmophobia(sensitive to odors).
Difficulty in concentrating.

Common diagnostic errors in migraine:

Not realizing that migraine often causes bilateral pain.and is not always described as severe throbbing.
Misdiagnosing migraine as sinus headache or eye strain.

Drug and Dose:

Dihydroergotamine: 0.5-1 mg

Almotriptan: 12.5mg

Eletriptan: 20-40mg

Sumatriptan: 50-100mg

The prescription contains in Pathophysiology of Migraine:

Mild to moderate attacks: NSAIDS or acetaminophen is used, opioid analgesics and caffeine are used infrequently. Sometimes mild attacks but are prone to be overused leading to a type of daily headache syndrome called medication overuse headache.

Severe attacks: Triptans:Almotriptan,Eletriptan,Frovatriptan,Sumatriptan.

Dihydroergotamine with antiemetic metoclopramide and prochlorperazine.

Following are the triggers:

Hormonal changes: Women may experience migraine symptoms during menstruation, due to changing hormone levels.

Emotional triggers: Stress, depression, anxiety, excitement, and shock can trigger a migraine.

Physical causes: Tiredness and insufficient sleep, shoulder or neck tension, poor posture, and physical overexertion have all been linked to migraines. Low blood sugar and jet lag can also act as triggers.

Triggers in the diet: Alcohol and caffeine can contribute to triggering migraines. Some specific foods can also have this effect, including chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, and foods containing the additive tyramine. Irregular mealtimes and dehydration have also been named as potential triggers.

Medications: Some sleeping pills, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) medications, and the combined contraceptive pill have all been named as possible triggers.
Triggers in the environment: Flickering screens, strong smells, second-hand smoke, and loud noises can set off a migraine. Stuffy rooms, temperature changes, and bright lights are also possible triggers.

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