Healthy Nourishment – It is defined as the food which necessary for growth of tissues and bones, health and good condition.
A nutrition is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. Some provide energy and other will help in body building process like growth of cells and tissues, regulate body processes such as metabolism, circulation and breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the needed for the body, so we need to have them in rotation manner such that we can cover all of them.
The science of nutrition identifies amount of food we need and recommends the best food sources that we can provides helpful and harmful components. Helps us make better choices in improves our health and reduces our risk of diseases by that we can increases our longevity of life.
Classification of Healthy Nourishment:
Macronutrients – Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins.
Micronutrients – Vitamins and Minerals.
Organic – Carbohydrate, Lipids, Proteins and Vitamins.
Inorganic – Minerals and Water.
Healthy Nourishment Requirement:
Nutritional status of a society varies according to the Socio-economic condition in the Western world nutrition imbalance is more often a problem accounting for increased frequency of obesity while in developing countries of Africa, Asia and South America. Chronic malnourishment is a serious health problem particularly in children.
It is essential to know components of normal and adequate nourishment. For good health humans receive energy providing nourishment like fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins minerals, water and some non essential nutrients.
- The requirement of energy by the body is calculated in kilo calories per day in order to retain stable weight and undertake day-to-day activity the energy intake must match energy output average requirement of the energy for an individual.
- Since the requirement of energy varies according to the level of physical activity performed by the person. the sedentary person require less than moderate active person and very active person.
- Dietary proteins provide the body with amino acids for endogenous protein synthesis and are also a metabolic fuel for energy. (1 gram of protein provide 4 kilo calories)
- Nine essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, theonine, phenyl alanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, cystine and lysine must be supplied by dietary intake as this cannot be synthesized in the body the recommended average requirement of protein for an adult is 0.6 grams per kg of desired weight per day. For the healthy person 10 to 14% of calories required should come from proteins.
Fats and fatty acids should comprise about 35% of diet in order to minimize the risk of atherosclerosis, polyunsaturated fats should be limited to less than 10% of calories and saturated fats and trans-fats should comprise less than 10% of calories while mono saturated fats to be contribute the reminder of fats intake. (1 gram of Fat yield 9 kilo calories)
- Dietary carbohydrates are major source of dietary calories specially for the brain, RBC and muscles.
- One gram of Carbohydrates provide 4 kilo calories of energy at least 55% of total calorie requirement it should be derived from carbohydrates.
- These are mainly derived from exogenous dietary sources and are essential for maintaining the normal structure and function of cells.
- A healthy individual require for fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and water soluble vitamins ( C, B complex vitamins)
- Vitamin deficiency result in individual deficiency syndromes or may be a part of multiple deficiency state.
A number of minerals like Iron, calcium, Phosphorus and certain trace elements like zinc, copper, Selenium, iodine, chlorine, Sodium, Potassium, magnesium, manganese, Cobalt and molybdenum are essential for health.
- Water intake is essential to cover the loss of faeces, urine exhalations and insensible loss as to avoid under or over hydration.
- Although body’s water need vary according to physical activity and weather conditions, average requirement of water is 1 to 1.5 ml per kilo calories of energy spent.
- Infant and pregnant women are relatively higher requirement of water.
Dietary fibres are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin though consider non-essential, are important due to their beneficial effects in lowering the risk of Colonic Cancers, diabetes and coronary artery disease.
Influences of Food Choices and Malnourishment:
The influences of food choices which can cause malnourishment due to continues intake of same type of food over and over for long period of time. The influences of food choices are of many types like:
Sensory influence like taste (sweet, sour, bitter and salty), smell, texture, color, moisture and temperature.
Physiological changes accompanied aging process teeth and gums deterioration.
Cognitive influences like habits, comfort, carving advertising and promotion, social factors, nutritional values and health beliefs
Environmental factors like economic factors, lifestyle, culture, religion, climate food that is accessible, food cost, eating away from the home and convenience food main dish made from starch.
How to calculate the energy available from food?
30 g carbohydrate x 4 Kcal/g = 120 Kcal
10 g Protien x 4 Kcal/g = 40 Kcal
16 g fat x 9 Kcal/g = 144 Kcal
Total = 304 Kcalories
Their is a need of managing the percentage of macro nutrients intake for their daily energy needs.
At the end proper nourishment is a way to be healthy. For more details join our Community for discussion on nutrition aspect.