Diabetes Mellitus is an endocrine disorder:
Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is an endocrine disorder characterized by insulin insufficiency (type 1 diabetes)
Insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes)and chronically raised blood sugar levels. Vascular diseases (diabetic angiopathies) play a deciding role in the course of the disease.
Symptoms for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2:
Damage to nerves and causes problems with sensation.
- Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. …
- Increased hunger. …
- Weight loss. …
- Fatigue. …
- Blurred vision. …
- Slow-healing sores or frequent infections.
- Areas of darkened skin.
|RBS||140-159mg/dl(Normal)||200 mg/dl (Diabetes Mellitus)|
|FBS||80-100 mg/dl (Normal)||126 mg/dl (Diabetes Mellitus)|
|PPBS||<120 mg/dl (Normal)||>160 mg/dl (Diabetes Mellitus)|
|HBA1C||<5.8% (Normal)||>7% (Diabetes Mellitus)|
- Glipizide Regular release 2.5 mg once/day-20 mg twice a day
- Glipizide extended-release 2.5-20 mg once/day
- Glimepiride 1-8 mg once/day
- Glibenclamide 1-2 mg once daily
- Metformin Regular release 500 mg once/day-250 mg twice/day
- Metformin extended release 500 mg-2 mg once/day
- Pioglitazone 15-45 mg once/day
- Rosiglitazone 2-8 mg once/day
- Acarbose 25-100 mg 3 times a day with meals
- Miglitol 25-100 mg 3 times a day with meals
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors:
- Sitagliptin 100 mg once/day
- Rapid-acting insulins: Lispro(Humalog),Aspart(Novolog),Glulisine(Apidra)
- Short-acting: Regular (Humulin R or Novolin R)
- Intermediate-acting: NPH (Humulin N and Novolin N)
- Long-acting: Glargine(Lantus)
- Premixed-Humulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30, Novolog 70/30, Humulin 50/50, Humalog mix 75/25
Counseling on side effects:
- Glipizide: Hypoglycemia, Weight gain-check for sugar levels After exercise or a missed meal.
- Glimepiride: Hypoglycemia, Weight gain-check for sugar levels After exercise or a missed meal
- Glibenclamide: Dizziness so doesn’t drive a car or don’t operate machinery. Dehydration during the hot season so drinks plenty of fluids. Monitor kidney, liver functions.
- Metformin: Diarrhoea,Nausea,Stomach upset,metallic taste,lactic acidosis
- Pioglitazone: Anemia,fluid retention,edema,weight gain,Bone loss in women,Bladder cancer, monitor liver function before and during treatment.
- Rosiglitazone: Heart failure, Angina.Stroke
- Acarbose, Miglitol: Flatulence
- Sitagliptin: Runny nose, Headache, Upper respiratory tract infection-Discontinue treatment if there are signs of hypersensitivity. Caution when used with sulfonylureas and/or other antidiabetic medications; monitor blood glucose regularly.
General counseling points for Diabetics:
- Eat food at fixed hours
- Do not overeat
- Do not eat immediately after a workout