PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY   ON

COCCINIA GRANDIS:

Plan of work for determination of Analgesic Activity of Coccinia Grandis:

  • Collection and authentication of Coccinia grandis.
  • Extraction of the dried plant material using Maceration.
  • Preliminary phytochemical tests of aqueous extract to identify the phytoconstituents
  • Analgesic activity of coccinia grandis was conducted

COLLECTION AND AUTHENTICATION OF PLANT MATERIAL

The plant material i.e coccinia grandis was collected in the month of August 2011 from Wonder Herbals Pvt Ltd.

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Cucurbitales
Family:Cucurbitaceae
Genus:Coccinia
Species:C. grandis
Binomial name
Coccinia grandis

 

 PREPARATION OF POWDER

The plant material of coccinia grandis were shade dried and then powdered with a grinder to form a coarse powder.

The powder was passed through sieve no 40 and was stored in an air tight container until further use. The powder was used for the extraction process.

 

PREPARATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT 

AQUEOUS EXTRACT: The  aqueous extract of  the plant was prepared using Maceration process. The coarse powder of plant (100g) was taken inn a beaker with the water quantity of  1000ml and was Macerated for 72hrs.

During the Maceration occasional stirring and warming were carried out. After 72 hrs, the suspension was filtered through a fine muslin cloth. The solvent was removed by heating it and a greenish black residue was obtained

Pharmacological activities of C. grandis

 Antibacterial activity

Antibacterial activity of aqueous, hexane extracts of leaves and aqueous, hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol extracts of stem of C. grandis was tested against four gram positive bacteria and six gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of stemare more effective in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as compared with hexane and water extracts.

Hepato protective activity

Diethyl ether extract of leaves of C. grandis was evaluated in CCl4induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The elevated levels of SGOT and SGPT were significantly reduced in the group of animals administered with 400 mg/kg diethyl ether extract. Sylimarin (125 mg/kg) were used as positivecontrol

 Anti-ulcer activity

Methanol extract (2 g/kg), aqueous extract (2 g/kg) and powder (0.5-2 g/kg) of leaves of C. grandis were tested for antiulcer activity in Wistar albino rats. Aspirin (200 mg/kg bw) in 1% sodium was used as control, famotidine (20 mg/kg bw) in 1% sodium was used as standard drug. Powder of leaf and methanol extract showed significant decrease of ulcer, aqueous extract showed no significant decrease

 Anti-tissue activity

Methanol extract of fruits of C. grandis with two different concentrations (2.5% and 5% w/v) was tested for anti-tissue activity by counting number cough of bouts produced due to aerosols of citric acid and sulfur dioxide with the experimental animal guinea pig. The extract showed significant inhibition of cough, like the standard drug(codeine phosphate) in dose-dependent manner established.

 Antioxidant activity

Methanolic extract, aqueous extract and powder of the leaves of C. grandis were tested for antioxidant activity.Powder form and methanolic extract showed good antioxidant property whereas aqueous extract did not showed any significant activity

 Hypoglycemic activity

Hypoglycemic activities of leaves of C. grandis were tested with 90% alcoholic extract. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of a freshly prepared of streptozotocin 55 mg/kg body weight of rats in 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH4.5). Alcoholic extract 600 mg/kg body weight was injected orally to mice. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves of C. grandis showed significant hypoglycemic effect on blood glucose level in normal fasted rats.

 Antihelminthic activity

Anti-helminthic activity of C. grandis (fruits) using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts was studied.

Different concentrations of extract swear used for anti-helminthic activity (25 and 50 mg/ml).

 Anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Coccinia Grandis:

Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract offresh leaves of C. grandis was studied in rats using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method at various dose levels. Analgesic and antipyretic properties were evaluate dusing tail flick model and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia.

For Analgesic activity :

  • 36 Albino rats (Whister Strain) were taken and divided into 6 groups i.e.6 in each group (Head, Body, Tail, Head-Body, Body-Tail, Head-Tail)
  • Every rat in each group was weighed and their weights were in the range of 150-200mg and as per the weight the standard dose of Diclofenac (10mg/kg) and coccinia grandis for each Rat was calculated.
  • Both Diclofenac and coccinia grandis were given orally.
  • Analgesic activity was studied by using Eddy’s Hot Plate. The time for paw licking was noted in different groups as given below. The temperature in Eddy’s Hot Plate was maintained at 60o

 

GROUPDRUG GIVEN
GROUP ISALINE (Control)
GROUP IIDICLOFENAC (Standard-10mg/kg)
GROUP IIILOW DOSE OF COCCINIAGRANDIS (200mg/kg)
GROUP IVHIGH DOSE OF COCCINIAGRANDIS(400mg/kg)
GROUP VLOW DOSE +DICLOFENAC
GROUP VIHIGH DOSE+DICLOFENAC

 

  • The analgesic activity with time was tabulated.

Note:-   Diclofenac is used as standard drug for both the procedures since it is an NSAID.

Data showing time for paw licking in Group I

GROUP I SALINE (Control)

H4.53.74.24.43.9
B 4.34.22.33.63.1
T4.64.33.73.24.4
HB2.42.12.83.12.7
HBT2.92.52.8 2.12.7
Mean+SE3.74+1.01633.36+100393.2+0.71763.28+0.83483.36+0.7602

Data showing time for paw licking in Group II

  GROUP II   DICLOFENAC (Standard-10mg/kg)

 

ANIMALS0H1H2H3H4H
H 4.5 5.6 7.0 8.0 8
B 4.6 5.5 6.9 8.0 8.9
T 4.2 5.7 8.4 8.5 9.3
HB 4.3 7.0 6.5 9.0 9.4
HBT 3.6 7.0 6.1 9.5 9.8
Mean+SE4.24+0.39116.10+0.64398.18+0.64268.6+1.49239+1.0473

 

 

 

Data showing time for paw licking in Group III 

 GROUP III     LOW DOSE OF COCCINIAGRANDIS (200mg/kg)

 

 

ANIMALS

 0H 1H 2H 3H4H
H 5.1 5.6 5.7 8.0 8.1
B 5.2 5.5 5.9 8.5 8.3
T 5.0 5.7 6.0 8.0 8. 4
HB 5.9 7.0 6.01 9 9.2
HBT 4.3 7.1 6.2 9.5 9.6
Mean+SE5.1+0.51286.18+0.57006.9+0.79818.6+1.66828.72+1.536

 

 

 Data showing time for paw licking in Group IV

  GROUP IV HIGH DOSE OF COCCINIA GRANDIS(400mg/kg)

ANIMALS0H1H2H3H4H
H4.25.65.99.58
B4.34.966.58
T4.54.96.28.48.5
HB 4.65.696.66.49
HBT4.74.16.96.19.5
Mean+SE2.98+1019454.1+1.14675.3+094865.56+10464.732+0.9879

Conclusion:

The phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of coccinia grandis showed the presence of  Saponins which were considered to be responsible for its pharmacological activity(Analgesic activities). Therefore coccinia grandis was considered to possess analgesic activities.

The literature clearly suggest that coccinia grandis has been widely used as Analgesic. In order to evaluate its analgesic activities, in-vivo studies of aqueous  extract of coccinia grandis were conducted on rats.

The investigations on coccinia grandiswere found to produce positive results towards the evidence of Analgesic activities. The data obtained from Analgesic activities experiments clearly suggested that the analgesic activities of coccinia grandis were dose dependent. It also can be noted that the combination of coccinia grandis and Diclofenac had a synergistic effect in curing algesia.

Finally our studies concluded that coccinia grandis has Analgesic activities.